Therapeutic Targets Database
BIDD Pharmainformatics Databases


TTD Target ID: TTDS00039

Target Information
Type of targetSuccessful target    
SynonymsCyclooxygenase (COX1 and COX2)    
Prostaglandin H2 synthase    
Prostaglandin synthase    
DiseaseCardiovascular disease, unspecified
[ICD9: 390-459   ICD10: I00-I99]
Inflammatory diseases[3]
DiclofenacApprovedRheumatoid arthritis[8][9]
FenoprofenApprovedRheumatoid arthritis[10][11]
FlurbiprofenApprovedRheumatoid arthritis[12]
IndomethacinApprovedPatent ductus arteriosus[16]
Meclofenamic acidApprovedJoint and muscular pain[18][19]
OxaprozinApprovedInflammatory diseases[10]
Sulindac sulfideApprovedRheumatoid arthritis[20]
AsasantinMarketedCerebrovascular ischaemia[21]
PravigardMarketedMyocardial infarction, cerebrovascular ischaemia[21]
BenzydaminePhase II terminatedChemotherapy- or radiotherapy-induced mucositis, pain relief[22]
NCX-4016Terminated in Phase IIType 2 Diabetes, Early Nephropathy, Claudication, inflammation, pain, vein graft restenosis, thrombosis[21]
BioChemical ClassOxidoreductases acting on paired donors    
PathwayArachidonic acid metabolism
Metabolic pathways
Target ValidationClick to Find Target Validation Information.    
QSAR ModelClick to Find Target QSAR Model.    
Meclofenamic acid[18][19]
Sulindac sulfide[20]
Cross References 3D Structure
Related Literature
On-Line Medical Dictionary
Ref 1Prostaglandin synthase. At the heart of the matter. Curr Biol. 1994 May 1;4(5):452-4. To Reference
Ref 2Prostaglandin H synthases, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and colon cancer. FASEB J. 1997 Mar;11(4):234-47. To Reference
Ref 3The 2.0 A resolution crystal structure of prostaglandin H2 synthase-1: structural insights into an unusual peroxidase. J Mol Biol. 2004 Jan 9;335(2):503-18. To Reference
Ref 4Mechanism of action of paracetamol. Am J Ther. 2005 Jan-Feb;12(1):46-55. To Reference
Ref 5COX-3: just another COX or the solitary elusive target of paracetamol? Lancet. 2003 Mar 22;361(9362):981-2. To Reference
Ref 6COX-3, a cyclooxygenase-1 variant inhibited by acetaminophen and other analgesic/antipyretic drugs: cloning, structure, and expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 15;99(21):13926-31. Epub 2002 Sep 19. To Reference
Ref 7Cyclooxygenase inhibitors: instrumental drugs to understand cardiovascular homeostasis and arterial thrombosis. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2008 Dec;8(4):268-77. To Reference
Ref 8Aqueous extract of Asiasari radix inhibits formalin-induced hyperalgesia via NMDA receptors. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 May 4;123(1):128-33. Epub 2009 Feb 14. To Reference
Ref 9Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2003 Jan;2(1):38-51.Knockouts model the 100 best-selling drugs--will they model the next 100? To Reference
Ref 10The aryl propionic acid R-flurbiprofen selectively induces p75NTR-dependent decreased survival of prostate tumor cells. Cancer Res. 2007 Apr 1;67(7):3254-62. To Reference
Ref 11Immunomodulatory effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) at the clinically available doses. Arch Pharm Res. 2007 Jan;30(1):64-74. To Reference
Ref 12In vitro and in vivo profiling of CHF5022 and CHF5074 Two beta-amyloid1-42 lowering agents. Pharmacol Res. 2007 Apr;55(4):318-28. Epub 2007 Jan 16. To Reference
Ref 13Natural products as sources of new drugs over the last 25 years. J Nat Prod. 2007 Mar;70(3):461-77. Epub 2007 Feb 20. To Reference
Ref 146251858 To Reference
Ref 15Differential modulation of Toll-like receptors by fatty acids: preferential inhibition by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Lipid Res. 2003 Mar;44(3):479-86. Epub 2002 Dec 1. To Reference
Ref 16Indomethacin decreases arachidonic acid uptake in HCA-7 human colon cancer cells. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Nov;108(3):389-92. Epub 2008 Nov 6. To Reference
Ref 17Cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase dependence of cutaneous reactive hyperemia in humans. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):H425-32. Epub 2007 Mar 16. To Reference
Ref 18Interactions of PGH synthase isozymes-1 and -2 with NSAIDs. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994 Nov 15;744:50-7. To Reference
Ref 19Pharmacology of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase isozymes-1 and -2. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994 Apr 18;714:136-42. To Reference
Ref 20A novel sulindac derivative that does not inhibit cyclooxygenases but potently inhibits colon tumor cell growth and induces apoptosis with antitumor activity. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2009 Jun;2(6):572-80. Epub 2009 May 26. To Reference
Ref 21Emerging drugs in peripheral arterial disease. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2006 Mar;11(1):75-90. To Reference
Ref 22Emerging drugs for chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Sep;13(3):511-22. To Reference
Ref 23Emerging drug therapies in Huntington's disease. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2009 Jun;14(2):273-97. To Reference


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