Therapeutic Targets Database
BIDD Pharmainformatics Databases


Target Validation Information
Target NameAlpha-1B adrenergic receptor    
Type of TargetSuccessful target    
Drug Potency against TargetMethamphetamineEC50 = 12.3 nM[1]
MethoxamineEC50 = 65000 nM[2]
DextroamphetamineEC50 = 7.07 nM[1]
PhendimetrazineEC50 = 8300 nM[1]
DextroamphetamineIC50 = 41 nM[3]
WAY-100135IC50 = 1490 nM[4]
SiramesineIC50 = 330 nM[5]
ABANOQUILKi = 0.08 nM[7]
FLUANISONEKi = 0.87 nM[9]
TIOSPIRONEKi = 1.5 nM[10]
RWJ-69736Ki = 10000 nM[11]
(2-Bromo-phenyl)-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)-amineKi = 11000 nM[12]
Imidazolidin-2-ylidene-quinoxalin-6-yl-amineKi = 11000 nM[13]
MEDETOMIDINEKi = 1102 nM[14]
(+/-)-nantenineKi = 1191 nM[15]
SK&F-106686;SK-106686Ki = 15 nM[16]
4-(3-Hydroxy-piperidin-3-yl)-benzene-1,2-diolKi = 15000 nM[17]
SNAP-8719Ki = 165 nM[18]
N-(5-Bromo-quinoxalin-6-yl)-guanidineKi = 17000 nM[13]
4-(1-Naphthalen-1-yl-vinyl)-1H-imidazoleKi = 1734 nM[19]
BMY-7378Ki = 191 nM[18]
SK&F-104856;SK-104856Ki = 23 nM[16]
Imidazolidin-2-ylidene-o-tolyl-amineKi = 2500 nM[13]
SNAP-5089Ki = 269 nM[16]
RX-821002Ki = 27 nM[20]
4-(3,4-Dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-quinolineKi = 3200 nM[21]
4-Benzo[b]thiophen-4-yl-1H-imidazoleKi = 343 nM[22]
sunepitronKi = 35 nM[23]
RWJ-68157Ki = 3536 nM[11]
4-((E)-1-Naphthalen-1-yl-propenyl)-1H-imidazoleKi = 387 nM[19]
A-119637Ki = 4.66 nM[24]
6-fluoronorepinehprineKi = 4000 nM[25]
AGN-193080Ki = 470 nM[13]
SK&F-86466;SK-86466Ki = 485 nM[16]
4-(1-Naphthalen-1-yl-ethyl)-1H-imidazoleKi = 536 nM[14]
4-(2,3-Dihydro-1H-phenalen-1-yl)-1H-imidazoleKi = 55 nM[19]
4-((Z)-1-Naphthalen-1-yl-propenyl)-1H-imidazoleKi = 57 nM[19]
4-(1-Naphthalen-1-yl-propyl)-1H-imidazoleKi = 574 nM[19]
2-Pyridin-4-yl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinolineKi = 5800 nM[21]
(2,6-Dichloro-phenyl)-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)-amineKi = 6000 nM[12]
UH-301Ki = 6080 nM[4]
4-(4-butylpiperidin-1-yl)-1-o-tolylbutan-1-oneKi = 65 nM[27]
4-(4-Isopropyl-morpholin-2-yl)-benzene-1,2-diolKi = 6700 nM[17]
4-(4-Methyl-indan-1-yl)-1H-imidazoleKi = 73 nM[28]
4-Morpholin-2-yl-benzene-1,2-diolKi = 7400 nM[17]
SK&F-105854;SK-105854Ki = 783 nM[16]
RWJ-25730Ki = 8.2 nM[26]
SK&F-104078;SK-104078Ki = 87 nM[16]
AGN-192172Ki = 8900 nM[13]
A-123189Ki = 9.09 nM[24]
WB-4101Ki = 9.9 nM[7]
Action against Disease ModelPropericiazine2-Chloro-11-(2-dimethyl-aminoethoxy) dibenzo [b, f] thiepin (zotepine) is a new neuroleptic drug which is structurally different from known neuroleptics. Zotepine, chlorpromazine, propericiazine, and cyproheptadine inhibited hyperthermia induced by dosing with fenfluramine in rats in a warm environment (26-28 degrees C). Fenfluramine is known to induce hyperthermia by mediation of central serotonin. Zotepine had a 10 times or greater potency than chlorpromazine, propericiazine and cyproheptadine in inhibiting the hyperthermia. Thioridazine did not inhibit the hyperthermia, whereas haloperidol accelerated the hyperthermia. Zotepine was also the most potent inhibitor of 3H-serotonin binding to rat cortical synaptosomes in vitro. However, cyproheptadine had the strongest anti-serotonin activity in rat fundus preparations, while zotepine and other neuroleptics showed the same order of potency. These results showed that zotepine is a unique neuroleptic with potent central anti-serotonin activity. The central anti-serotonin activity of zotepine is discussed in connection with its lesser extrapyramidal side effects in h uMans.[29]
DextroamphetamineProbing mesocorticolimbic dopamine function in severe depression using dextroamphetamine revealed an altered behavioural response and a disrupted mesocorticolimbic circuitry in behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The purpose of this study was to use a similar approach in alcohol dependence. Behavioural Study: to assess dextroamphetamine subjective effects in alcohol-dependent and depressed alcohol-dependent participants. fMRI Study: to assess how the mesocorticolimbic circuitry would respond to a dextroamphetamine challenge in alcohol-dependent participants exposed to alcohol cues. Methods. In both studies, a single oral 30 mg dose of dextroamphetamine was the pharmacological intervention. Behavioural Study: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subject study. Eighteen alcohol-dependent and 22 depressed alcohol-dependent participants were compared using validated self-report drug effect tools (e.g. Addiction Research Center Inventory). fMRI Study: single-blind, between-subject study. fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation was measured in 14 alcohol-dependent and 9 healthy control participants during an alcohol-cue exposure task pre- and post-drug. Results. Behavioural Study: DRUG (F 1,40 =18.6; p <0.001) and GROUP (F 1,40 =16.6; p <0.001) main effects but no GROUP?DRUG interaction effects (F1,40 =0.02; p =0.88) were detected, even when only severely depressed alcohol-dependent individuals were included (F1,30 =0.04; p =0.84). fMRI Study: Alcohol-dependent participants exhibited greater ventral striatal activation compared to controls pre-drug and post-drug effect (F 1,40 =20.1; z =3.8; p <0.001; k >10; (x =10; y =-2; z =-14)). A GROUP?DRUG interaction effect was detected in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) (F1,40 =21.5; z =4.0; p <0.001; k >10; (x =-12; y =28; z =-20). The alcohol-dependent group exhibited a negligible mOFC response across both pre- and post-drug scanning sessions. In contrast, controls exhibited attenuation of mOFC response post-drug. Conclusion. The lack of significant GROUP?DRUG interaction effects in the Behavioural Study may suggest different neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence and depression mesocorticolimbic dysfunction. Alcohol dependence appeared to mitigate the impact of depression severity on participants' behavioural responses to dextroamphetamine. The fMRI Study data suggest there may be ventral striatal and mOFC disruption in alcohol-dependent participants. We suggest the mOFC may be involved in the reported loss of prefrontal modulation of dopamine cell activity in alcohol dependence. This supports a key role for the mOFC in mesocorticolimbic dysfunction in alcohol dependence.[30]
LisdexamfetamineThese studies investigated the absorption and metabolic conversion of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), a prodrug stimulant that requires conversion to d-amphetamine for activity. Oral absorption of LDX was assessed in rat portal and jugular blood, and perfusion of LDX into isolated intestinal segments of anesthetized rats was used to assess regional absorption. Carrier-mediated transport of LDX was investigated in Caco-2 cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing h uMan peptide transporter-1 (PEPT1). LDX metabolism was studied in rat and h uMan tissue homogenates and h uMan blood fractions. LDX was approximately10-fold higher in portal blood versus systemic blood. LDX and d-amphetamine were detected in blood following perfusion of the rat small intestine but not the colon. Transport of LDX in Caco-2 cells had permeability apparently similar to cephalexin and was reduced with concurrent PEPT1 inhibitor. Affinity for PEPT1 was also demonstrated in PEPT1-transfected CHO cells. LDX metabolism occurred primarily in whole blood (rat and h uMan), only with red blood cells. Slow hydrolysis in liver and kidney homogenates was probably due to residual blood. The carrier-mediated absorption of intact LDX, likely by the high-capacity PEPT1 transporter, and subsequent metabolism to d-amphetamine in a high-capacity system in blood (ie, red blood cells) may contribute to the consistent, reproducible pharmacokinetic profile of LDX.[31]
Methoxaminealpha-Adrenergic receptor stimulation regulates the activity of a n uMber of different cardiac ion channels, including those underlying one or more distinct Cl- conductances. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used in the present study to investigate the effects of alpha-adrenergic stimulation on the beta-adrenergically regulated Cl- current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Neither alpha 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation with methoxamine (25 to 500 m uMol/L) nor direct activation of endogenous protein kinase C (PKC) with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu, 100 nmol/L) evoked a Cl- current. On the contrary, the Cl- current activated by 30 nmol/L isoproterenol was inhibited by methoxamine, with an EC50 of 6.7 +/- 2.6 m uMol/L, and this response was blocked by prazosin, an alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Prazosin also decreased the EC50 for current activation by norepinephrine from 53 +/- 7.1 to 18 +/- 3.8 nmol/L, demonstrating that the ability of this endogenous neurotransmitter to activate the Cl- current through beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation is limited by its intrinsic ability to also activate alpha-adrenergic receptors. Methoxamine did not inhibit the Cl- current evoked by either direct activation of adenylate cyclase with forskolin or inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, indicating that alpha-adrenergic stimulation inhibits beta-adrenergic responses at a point upstream of adenylate cyclase activation. Methoxamine also did not inhibit the Cl- current activated by histamine, suggesting that alpha-adrenergic stimulation specifically inhibits beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated responses. The inhibitory effect of methoxamine was not mimicked by PDBu, and it persisted in the presence of bisindolylmaleimide, a selective PKC inhibitor. However, methoxamine inhibition of the isoproterenol-activated Cl- current was sensitive to pertussis toxin. These results suggest that alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation inhibits the beta-adrenergically activated Cl- current, demonstrating a novel mechanism by which alpha-adrenergic receptors may regulate ion channel activity in the heart.[32]
Ref 1Curr Top Med Chem. 2006;6(17):1845-59.Therapeutic potential of monoamine transporter substrates. To Reference
Ref 2Neurosci Lett. 1996 Nov 15;219(1):53-6.Adrenergic activation of phospholipase D in primary rat astrocytes. To Reference
Ref 3Probing Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine Function In Alcohol Dependence Using Dextroamphetamine Behavioural and FMRI Studies by Xavier Laurent Balducci, Pg 18 To Reference
Ref 4J Med Chem. 1997 Apr 11;40(8):1252-7.N-[2-[(substituted chroman-8-yl)oxy]ethyl]-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)butylamines: synthesis and wide range of antagonism at the human 5-HT1A receptor. To Reference
Ref 5J Med Chem. 1995 May 26;38(11):1998-2008.Sigma ligands with subnanomolar affinity and preference for the sigma 2 binding site. 1. 3-(omega-aminoalkyl)-1H-indoles. To Reference
Ref 6J Med Chem. 1997 Dec 5;40(25):4146-53.Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of triflate-substituted analogues of clozapine: identification of a novel atypical neuroleptic. To Reference
Ref 7J Med Chem. 1995 Sep 1;38(18):3415-44.Alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors: from the gene to the clinic. 1. Molecular biology and adrenoceptor subclassification. To Reference
Ref 8J Med Chem. 2010 Oct 14;53(19):7021-34.Exploring the neuroleptic substituent in octoclothepin: potential ligands for positron emission tomography with subnanomolar affinity for (1)-adrenoceptors. To Reference
Ref 9J Med Chem. 1987 Nov;30(11):2099-104.2-Phenylpyrroles as conformationally restricted benzamide analogues. A new class of potential antipsychotics. 1. To Reference
Ref 10J Med Chem. 1996 Jan 5;39(1):143-8.3-Benzisothiazolylpiperazine derivatives as potential atypical antipsychotic agents. To Reference
Ref 11Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2000 May 15;10(10):1093-6.Novel arylpiperazines as selective alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonists. To Reference
Ref 12J Med Chem. 1997 Jan 3;40(1):18-23.Synthesis and evaluation of 2-(arylamino)imidazoles as alpha 2-adrenergic agonists. To Reference
Ref 13Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 5(15):1745-1750 (1995) To Reference
Ref 14J Med Chem. 1994 Jul 22;37(15):2328-33.A structure-activity relationship study of benzylic modifications of 4-[1-(1-naphthyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazoles on alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. To Reference
Ref 15Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Jan 15;20(2):628-31. Epub 2009 Nov 20.Synthetic studies and pharmacological evaluations on the MDMA ('Ecstasy') antagonist nantenine. To Reference
Ref 16J Med Chem. 1995 Sep 15;38(19):3681-716.Alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors: from the gene to the clinic. 2. Structure-activity relationships and therapeutic applications. To Reference
Ref 17J Med Chem. 1992 Mar 20;35(6):1009-18.Conformational effects on the activity of drugs. 13. A revision of previously proposed models for the activation of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. To Reference
Ref 18J Med Chem. 2005 Apr 21;48(8):3076-9.Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of fluoro analogues of 8-{2-[4-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1yl]ethyl}-8-azaspiro[4.5]decane-7,9-dione as selective alpha(1d)-adrenergic receptor antagonists. To Reference
Ref 19J Med Chem. 1996 Jul 19;39(15):3001-13.Medetomidine analogs as alpha 2-adrenergic ligands. 2. Design, synthesis, and biological activity of conformationally restricted naphthalene derivatives of medetomidine. To Reference
Ref 20J Med Chem. 1986 Oct;29(10):2000-3.Alpha-adrenoreceptor reagents. 4. Resolution of some potent selective prejunctional alpha 2-adrenoreceptor antagonists. To Reference
Ref 21Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 May 19;13(10):1759-62.4-(3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2yl)-pyridines and 4-(3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-quinolines as potent NR1/2B subtype selective NMDA receptor antagonists. To Reference
Ref 22J Med Chem. 2000 Mar 9;43(5):765-8.alpha(2) Adrenoceptor agonists as potential analgesic agents. 2. Discovery of 4-(4-Imidazo)-1,3-dimethyl-6,7-dihydrothianaphthene [corrected] as a high-affinity ligand for the alpha(2D) adrenergic receptor. To Reference
Ref 23J Med Chem. 2006 Jun 1;49(11):3116-35.An integrated in silico 3D model-driven discovery of a novel, potent, and selective amidosulfonamide 5-HT1A agonist (PRX-00023) for the treatment of anxiety and depression. To Reference
Ref 24Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001 May 7;11(9):1119-21.Two novel and potent 3-[(o-methoxyphenyl)piperazinylethyl]-5-phenylthien. To Reference
Ref 25Bioorg Med Chem. 2009 Dec 1;17(23):7987-92. Epub 2009 Oct 13.Structural basis of the selectivity of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor for fluorinated catecholamines. To Reference
Ref 26J Med Chem. 1994 Apr 15;37(8):1060-2.A new arylpiperazine antipsychotic with high D2/D3/5-HT1A/alpha 1A-adrenergic affinity and a low potential for extrapyramidal effects. To Reference
Ref 27J Med Chem. 2010 Sep 9;53(17):6386-97.Discovery of N-{1-[3-(3-oxo-2,3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]oxazin-4-yl)propyl]piperidin-4-yl}-2-phenylacetamide (Lu AE51090): an allosteric muscarinic M1 receptor agonist with unprecedented selectivity and procognitive potential. To Reference
Ref 28J Med Chem. 1997 Sep 12;40(19):3014-24.Medetomidine analogs as alpha 2-adrenergic ligands. 3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of medetomidine analogs and their potential binding interactions with alpha 2-adrenoceptors involving a "methyl pocket". To Reference
Ref 29Jpn J Pharmacol. 1982 Jun;32(3):405-12.The central anti-serotonin activity of zotepine, a new neuroleptic, in rats. To Reference
Ref 30Probing Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine Function In Alcohol Dependence Using Dextroamphetamine Behavioural and FMRI Studies. Xavier Laurent Balducci, Pg 18 To Reference
Ref 31Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2010 Jun 24;6:317-27.Absorption of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and its enzymatic conversion to d-amphetamine. To Reference
Ref 32Circ Res. 1996 Jun;78(6):1090-9.Alpha 1-adrenergic inhibition of the beta-adrenergically activated Cl- current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. To Reference


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